Tuesday, June 18,2024 - 7:38 GMT+7  Việt Nam EngLish 

National strategy on climate change to 2050 

 Thursday, November 30,2023

AsemconnectVietnam - Climate change has become an irreversible trend, the biggest challenge for humanity, and has been affecting all aspects: economics, politics, diplomacy, and global security. Each country must proactively adapt to limit negative impacts, and at the same time have the responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to implement the Paris Agreement on climate change from 2021 onwards to keep global temperature increase at 1.5oC by the end of this century.

National strategy on climate change to 2050
I. CONTEXT
Climate change has become an irreversible trend, the biggest challenge for humanity, and has been affecting all aspects: economics, politics, diplomacy, and global security. Each country must proactively adapt to limit negative impacts, and at the same time have the responsibility to reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to implement the Paris Agreement on climate change from 2021 onwards to keep global temperature increase at 1.5oC by the end of this century.
Achieving net zero emissions by 2050 is an inevitable development goal for the world, achieved mainly through strong energy transition and low-emission development. This is also the new "rule of the game" for global trade and investment that has been established since the 26th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP26 Conference). Therefore, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and converting energy from fossil to clean, renewable energy is an opportunity to promote economic restructuring in a sustainable direction, seizing opportunities to improve competitiveness of the economy and take advantage of opportunities for trade cooperation and investment for development.
In recent times, the work of responding to climate change has achieved important initial results. However, facing the trend of climate change and the new global context, responding to climate change in our country must move to a new phase, and should be placed in a central position, aiming to achieve the goal and be implemented effectively, substantively and transparently, while promoting the building of a green, circular and environmentally friendly economy, contributing to achieving the goal of being a developed, high-income country in year 2045.
II. OPINION
1. Adapting to climate change and achieving the net zero emissions target is an opportunity for sustainable development, the highest priority in development policies, the highest ethical standards at all levels , industries, businesses and people.
2. Responding to climate change is carried out on the principles of justice and fairness, with a global and all-people approach; based on synchronous institutions, effective and efficient policies and laws, science, technology and innovation, promoting internal resources and international cooperation; contributing to building and developing an independent, self-reliant and actively integrated economy.
3. Responding to climate change is the responsibility of the entire political system, each person and the entire society. The State plays a constructive and leading role; People and businesses play a central role and are the implementing subjects with the effective participation of socio-political organizations.
4. Implement urgent solutions to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the impacts of climate change; Give highest priority to ensuring safety and livelihoods for people in areas at risk of being severely affected; Focus on developing infrastructure to respond to climate change and energy transition based on the potential and advantages of regions.
5. Focus resources on responding to climate change, developing financial mechanisms and carbon markets, promoting investment shifts for low-emission economic development; promote the State's resources, promote the attraction of resources from organizations, businesses, individuals, and international resources, promote public-private cooperation on the basis of equality, cooperation, and mutual benefit.
III. TARGET
1. General goal
Proactively and effectively adapt, reducing vulnerability, loss and damage due to climate change; reduce greenhouse gas emissions according to the net zero emission target by 2050, making a positive and responsible contribution to the international community in protecting the earth's climate system; Take advantage of opportunities from responding to climate change to transform the growth model and improve the economy's resilience and competitiveness.
2. Specific goals
a) Adaptation to climate change
Reduce vulnerability and risk to the impacts of climate change through improving the resilience and adaptive capacity of natural, economic and social systems, and minimizing damage caused by natural disasters and increased climate extremes due to climate change.
- By 2030:
Control the deterioration of water resources and land resources, ensuring a sufficient balance of water resources to serve daily life, industry, services and important economic sectors.
The structure of crops and livestock is transformed towards smart adaptation to climate change; develop sustainable agricultural, forestry and fishery value chains; ensure food security and national nutritional balance.
Ensuring forest coverage of at least 42%; The area of terrestrial nature reserves reaches 9% of the land territory, the area of protected marine and coastal areas reaches at least 5% of the country's natural marine area.
Key infrastructure projects to adapt to climate change are completed with safety standards against natural disasters, especially natural disaster prevention projects, storm surge prevention, saltwater intrusion, and water storage projects for daily life and production, and to prevent flooding in large cities.
Ensure that at least 95% of the population is provided with clean, hygienic water, of which at least 80% of the population has access to clean water that meets standards; Meet the needs of preventing epidemics, diseases and new diseases arising from climate change.
The level of science and technology for hydrometeorological forecasting and early warning of natural disasters is on par with developed countries in Asia; The capacity to monitor climate change and manage natural disaster risks is on par with leading countries in the region; Meets basic climate service provision requirements.
Ensure 80% of households in areas frequently affected by natural disasters have safe housing; Complete relocation of at least 70% of households living in areas at high risk of flash floods and landslides to safe places; For areas that cannot be relocated, a monitoring, supervision and warning system will be installed to promptly evacuate and minimize risks when natural disasters occur; 100% of underground overflow areas are monitored and flooded water depth is warned.
- By 2050:
Effectively manage water and land resources, improve environmental quality for socio-economic development; firmly ensure national water resources security. Continue to develop modern, smart agriculture that effectively adapts to climate change and has high added value.
Maintain stable forest coverage at 43% and ensure national forest status; improve forest quality and sustainable forest management; The area of marine and coastal protected areas reaches 6% of the natural area of the national sea; Important natural ecosystems, endangered species, precious and rare genetic resources are restored and preserved effectively; Biodiversity and ecosystem services are fully valued, used sustainably and bring essential benefits to all people, contributing to ensuring ecological security.
The economic and social infrastructure system is developed synchronously and modernly to effectively adapt to rising sea levels and the impacts of climate change. Ensure that 100% of the population is provided with clean, hygienic water, of which at least 90% of the population has access to clean water that meets standards; All people have access to health care services.
The level and capacity of forecasting, warning of natural disasters, monitoring climate change, and managing natural disaster risks are equivalent to those of developed countries; Climate services meet socio-economic development requirements. The resilience of natural disaster prevention works is improved, ensuring safety against natural disasters according to design levels that take into account the impact of climate change.
All people are guaranteed safety from natural disasters and climate risks; Ensure relocation of 100% of households living in areas at high risk of flash floods and landslides to safe places; 100% of households in areas where natural disasters frequently occur have safe housing. Natural disaster risk insurance for production and business activities, assets of businesses and society.
b) Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Strive to achieve the net zero emissions target by 2050, actively contribute responsibly to the international community to protect the earth's climate system; improve the quality of growth and competitiveness of the economy.
- By 2030, ensure that total national greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 43.5% compared to the business as usual scenario (BAU). In which: The energy sector decreased by 32.6%, emissions did not exceed 457 million tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2td); The agricultural sector decreased by 43.0%, emissions did not exceed 64 million tons of CO2eq; Forestry and land use sectors reduce emissions by 70% and increase carbon absorption by 20%, total emissions and absorption reach at least -95 million tons of CO2eq; The waste sector decreased by 60.7%, emissions did not exceed 18 million tons of CO2eq; The industrial processes sector decreased by 38.3%, emissions did not exceed 86 million tons of CO2eq. Facilities with annual greenhouse gas emissions of 2,000 tons of CO2eq or more must reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
- By 2050, ensure that total national greenhouse gas emissions reach a net emission level of "0"; Emissions peak in 2035, then decline rapidly. In which: The energy sector decreased by 91.6%, emissions did not exceed 101 million tons of CO2eq; The agricultural sector decreased by 63.1%, emissions did not exceed 56 million tons of CO2eq; Forestry and land use sectors reduce emissions by 90%, increase carbon absorption by 30%, total emissions and absorption reach at least -185 million tons of CO2eq; The waste sector decreased by 90.7%, emissions did not exceed 8 million tons of CO2eq; The industrial processes sector decreased by 84.8%, emissions did not exceed 20 million tons of CO2eq. Facilities with annual greenhouse gas emissions of 200 tons CO2eq or more must reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
IV. TASKS AND SOLUTIONS
1. Proactively adapt to climate change
a) Enhance the resilience and adaptive capacity of natural, economic and social systems, ensuring sustainable livelihoods
- Prevent deterioration, degradation, and recovery of resources
Focus on protecting and restoring water resources. Establish and implement national water resources planning and river basins; Identify areas that need strict protection and strict management of groundwater exploitation activities; prevent and combat degradation, depletion, and pollution of water sources; Improve and restore degraded, depleted and polluted water sources, strengthen solutions to manage, exploit and use water resources economically and effectively, focusing on areas at risk of drought and water shortage, subject to adverse effects of saltwater intrusion. Ensuring water resources security; Cooperate and share benefits to ensure fairness and reasonableness in exploiting, using, protecting and developing transnational water resources. From now until 2030, focus on controlling the deterioration and depletion of water resources; Improve the efficiency of water resources management in a unified and integrated way to meet the water use needs of all sectors, improve environmental quality, minimize impacts and prevent natural disasters caused by water to serve people's lives and socio-economic development.
Reasonably and effectively exploit unused land areas, alluvial land along rivers and coastal areas for forest development and green tree development in urban and industrial zones. Promote the development of urban areas, industrial parks, and export processing zones according to a circular model, ensuring land funds for the development of inter-regional and inter-provincial waste treatment and recycling zones. Strengthen solutions to improve and protect soil, water and biodiversity environments, especially for degraded agricultural land; Prevent and minimize land degradation and land pollution. Strictly manage mineral resources used as common construction materials, ensuring prevention and control of landslides, subsidence, groundwater degradation, and sea erosion.
- Agriculture and food security
Building a smart, modern agriculture that effectively adapts to climate change and has high added value; firmly ensure food security and national nutritional balance. Promote agricultural restructuring and implement smart agricultural solutions to adapt to climate change; exploit and promote the advantages of tropical agriculture; develop organic, ecological, and environmentally friendly agriculture; Transforming the structure of crops, livestock, aquaculture and sustainable exploitation; Improve the resilience and adaptability of agriculture to climate change in each region and region.
From now to 2030, focus on transforming the structure of crops and livestock towards smart adaptation to climate change, developing sustainable agricultural, forestry and fishery value chains; ensure food security and national nutritional balance; planning production areas and developing large-scale concentrated commodity agriculture in the direction of modernity, applying high technology and scientific advances; Carrying out crop restructuring and sustainable agricultural development must rely on the natural advantages of each region and market needs; Promote farming, exploitation, protection and development of high value-added aquatic resources; Convert part of the rice growing area to annual crops or combine rice growing with aquaculture.
- Forests and ecosystems
Strictly manage and protect existing natural forests; enhance the protection capacity of watershed forests and coastal forests; develop large timber plantations and restore forest landscapes; sustainable management of forest resources associated with biodiversity protection and enhancement of ecosystem services; Increase community participation in forest protection, management and development to improve livelihoods, increase income and job opportunities in forestry. Management of ecosystems and biodiversity; enhance the resilience of natural ecosystems and protect and preserve biodiversity against the impacts of climate change and rising sea levels.
From now to 2030, priority will be given to building green buildings and developing urban trees, upgrading drainage systems, and preventing flooding due to heavy rains, floods, high tides, and storm surges for urban areas of big cities, coastal urban areas; Upgrading and renovating traffic works in areas with high natural disaster risks and vulnerable to climate change; Develop and complete the highway network and inter-regional transportation system. Complete key infrastructure works to respond to climate change, especially works to prevent natural disasters, prevent high tides, saltwater intrusion, works to store fresh water for daily life and production, and to prevent water intrusion. Flooding in large cities. New construction of a number of large multi-purpose reservoirs in drought areas and water scarce areas in accordance with the natural conditions of each region, ensuring effectiveness for socio-economic development.
- Medical and health
Strengthen solutions to provide clean water for rural, mountainous and coastal areas, especially areas affected by storms, floods, drought and saltwater intrusion. Develop a medical and health care network to meet the requirements of disease prevention and new diseases arising from climate change. Ensuring environmental hygiene conditions; Invest in the development of technology and equipment in the prevention and treatment of diseases increasing due to climate change. Build and replicate models of the medical and public health sectors to improve community resilience and adapt to climate change.
From now to 2030, focus on strengthening the water supply infrastructure system and the capacity to provide clean water to the population; develop medical networks, health care, and disease prevention, prioritizing vulnerable groups and ethnic minority areas; Strengthen the monitoring and early warning system of climate change impacts on health.
- Ensure social security and gender equality
Developing sustainable livelihood models, focusing on training, career change and technology support, accessing capital sources for people in areas exposed to many risks and vulnerable to the impacts of change climate. Improve awareness, knowledge, and capacity to manage natural disaster risks and adapt to climate change for officials, women members, youth, and people, especially in areas at high risk of natural disasters.
From now to 2030, strengthen the role, capacity and participation of women and youth in climate change adaptation and natural disaster risk management; Promote movements and activities to raise awareness and knowledge for young people about climate change and solutions in preventing natural disasters and adapting to climate change.
b) Minimize damage caused by natural disasters and extreme climate increases due to climate change
- Forecasting and early warning
Increase investment, upgrade and modernize the climate change monitoring network, hydrometeorological monitoring, earthquake and tsunami monitoring, and specialized natural disaster monitoring and surveillance systems, especially for storms, rain, floods, flash floods, inundations, landslides, riverbank and coastal erosion.
Upgrade and modernize technology for monitoring, analyzing, forecasting, and warning of weather and natural disasters; applying advanced and modern forecasting technologies; Prioritize the development of quantitative rain forecasting technology, flash flood and landslide warnings, and impact-based forecasting; Improve capacity to provide climate services and provide information for natural disaster prevention. Invest in expanding satellite ground information stations, mobile information equipment and satellite fishing vessel management systems to ensure complete, accurate and timely transmission of information to all localities, people across the country and ships operating at sea; Effectively operate the multi-disaster warning system, combined with the national information and communication infrastructure system.
From now until 2030, focus on developing scientific and technological potential to serve forecasting, warning of hydrometeorology and natural disasters on a par with developed countries in Asia. Climate change monitoring capacity is on par with leading countries in the region; Meets basic climate service provision requirements. Socialize a number of activities to observe, monitor and monitor extreme climate, with priority given to automatic rain measurement systems. Complete assessment and zoning of climate and natural disaster risks and create natural disaster warning maps; Build and complete the national database on climate change.
- Natural disaster prevention works
Implement timely and effective natural disaster prevention solutions, minimize risks from the impacts of climate change, focusing on high-risk areas affected by storms, floods, pipe floods, and flash floods , floods, landslides, droughts; Prevent, avoid, stop and limit the impact of high tides, saltwater intrusion, riverbank erosion, coastal erosion, and sea level rise. Build and upgrade natural disaster prevention and control works in areas where storms, floods, inundations, flash floods, and landslides frequently occur.
Consolidate, upgrade and complete the system of river dykes, sea dykes and irrigation and hydroelectric works to ensure proactive prevention and control of floods and storms according to design levels and safety against increased impacts due to climate change; Prioritize ensuring safety for systems of lakes, dams, river dikes and sea dikes. Build and upgrade storm shelters for ships and boats according to planning, linked with logistics services and fisheries information, including island areas. Build and strengthen works to prevent and control riverbank and coastal landslides in areas where landslides are complicated and seriously threaten dykes, residential areas and important infrastructure; Combining structural and non-structural solutions, ensuring economic, social, environmental efficiency and optimizing development resources. Strengthen the capacity to prevent flash floods, landslides, storms, major floods and extreme floods; Preventing harmful effects of drought, high tides and saltwater intrusion.
- Ensuring the safety of people's lives and property against the impacts of climate change
Planning, investing, relocating, and rearranging residential areas in areas frequently affected by extreme climate, especially in places with a high risk of storms, floods, and storm surges, River bank or coastal erosion or risk of flash floods, landslides, land subsidence, geological disasters; Places that cannot be relocated need to be monitored, monitored, and warned to promptly evacuate and minimize risks.
Strengthen measures to ensure safety for people, especially for vulnerable people in areas frequently affected by climate extremes and natural disasters; Building safe houses to prevent natural disasters associated with building new rural areas; Build community houses combined with evacuation to ensure safety for people. Enhance the capacity of search, rescue and rescue forces, ensuring security, social order and safety. Implement insurance for production and business activities, assets of businesses and society; Before 2030, provide natural disaster risk insurance for production and business activities in some high-risk fields such as farming, aquaculture, and seafood.
2. Regarding reducing greenhouse gas emissions
a) General task of reducing greenhouse gas emissions
- By 2030:
Develop and implement an action plan to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030 compared to 2020. Develop and implement a plan to manage and eliminate harmful substances greenhouse gases and substances that deplete the ozone layer by 2030. Develop and implement plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across sectors according to the roadmap to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. Implement greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for establishments that annually emit 3,000 tons of CO2eq or more from 2022. Encourage other emission establishments, especially establishments under public sector, conduct greenhouse gas inventories and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Build total greenhouse gas emission quotas and organize the allocation of greenhouse gas emission quotas to greenhouse gas emission establishments that must conduct greenhouse gas inventories from 2026. Construction and completion of facilities Online data on greenhouse gas inventory and measurement, reporting, and appraisal of greenhouse gas emission mitigation activities. Develop national specific greenhouse gas emission coefficients for major emission sources accounting for 0.1% of total national greenhouse gas emissions; Periodically update the list of emission factors for greenhouse gas inventory.
State agencies, socio-political organizations, and businesses implement measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in daily activities and in new investments and public procurement, including measures to use saving, energy efficiency, green buildings, sustainable cooling, using battery electric vehicles and low energy consuming devices. Encourage new investment projects and converted projects to apply technologies, production processes, provide services with low greenhouse gas emissions, and participate in cooperative mechanisms and methods. cooperate in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the provisions of law and with their conditions and activities.
- By 2050:
Develop and implement an action plan to reduce methane emissions by 40% by 2050 compared to 2030. Develop and implement a plan to manage and eliminate harmful substances greenhouse gas emissions and substances that deplete the ozone layer until 2050. Continue to develop and implement plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions across sectors according to the roadmap to achieve net zero emissions by year 2050.
Implement greenhouse gas inventory and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for establishments with annual emissions of 2,000 tons of CO2eq or more from 2030; 500 tons of CO2eq or more from 2040; 200 tons of CO2eq or more by 2050. All public sector establishments must conduct greenhouse gas inventories and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in daily activities becomes a matter of business ethics and social responsibility of organizations and businesses.
b) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by sector
- Energy field
+ About energy supply:
Promote the implementation of clean energy development solutions, economical and efficient use of energy and breakthrough technology solutions in the future while ensuring national energy security.
Continue to develop selective small hydropower plants that meet environmental protection standards; Expand a number of medium and large hydropower plants to maximize the efficiency of hydropower plants. Increase capacity of concentrated solar power plants, rooftop solar power, onshore wind power, offshore wind power, biomass power plants, develop hydrogen fuel technology, ammonia, tidal energy technology, waves. By 2030, the proportion of renewable energy sources including hydropower, wind power, solar power, and biomass will account for at least 33% of total electricity generation. By 2050, the proportion of renewable energy sources will account for at least 55% of total electricity generation.
Gradually convert coal power to cleaner energy sources; reduce the proportion of fossil fuel sources, do not develop new coal thermal power projects after 2030, gradually reduce the scale of coal power capacity after 2035; Gradually apply technology to convert to clean, emission-free fuels for factories using fossil fuels, aiming to minimize the amount of fossil fuels for electricity generation by 2050; Consider developing nuclear power with modern technology and ensuring safety at the appropriate time.
Develop energy storage technologies including battery storage, hydroelectricity, heat storage... and smart grid, ensuring stability and integrating renewable energy in the power system at a high rate. Upgrade energy transmission and distribution systems to increase efficiency, reduce losses and support effective integration of renewable energy sources. Research and apply carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology for power plants using fossil fuels and industrial production facilities.
+ Regarding energy use:
Strengthen the implementation of solutions for economical and efficient use of energy and promote the switch to clean energy in the industrial, agricultural, transportation, service, commercial and residential sectors. Increase the penetration rate of energy-efficient, high-performance equipment in the industrial, civil, and commercial sectors; Improve the efficiency of boilers, electric motors, heating, centralized cooling and electrical equipment; Gradually use hydrogen to replace coal in the metallurgical industry, service and trade industries. Agricultural electrification and the use of energy efficient equipment in the post-harvest agricultural production chain.
Build buildings and houses to protect against heat, use green cooling solutions, rely on nature to reduce the urban heat island effect, use materials with low greenhouse gas emissions, and recycled materials. Develop and apply regulations and standards for efficient use of building energy. Promote energy efficient solutions and innovative business models for cooling and air conditioning equipment and smart lighting systems. Improve energy efficiency of cold chain equipment and systems, promote the use of renewable energy for supply and cold storage systems.
Efficient use of energy in transportation through application of fuel consumption standards and emission norms. Develop and implement a roadmap for converting to clean fuel for vehicles; Gradually increase the proportion of electric and hydrogen vehicles. Develop an industry that uses clean energy, produces and circulates electric and hydrogen vehicles; producing new generation batteries and energy-saving semiconductors; Develop green transport infrastructure system.
Restructuring the transport market, including shifting from road transport to inland and coastal waterways; converting from road to rail transport, increasing rail freight traffic; Increase transport efficiency through construction and expansion of the road network and the North-South high-speed railway. Convert from private vehicles to public transport; Deploy metro systems in large cities.
- Agriculture sector
Apply measures to reduce emissions in the agricultural sector through management measures, technological innovation in farming and animal husbandry, changing land use methods, and developing low-emission agricultural value chains and post-harvest processing and preservation.
Developing sustainable organic agriculture, converting crop structure, integrated crop management, increasing economically irrigated cultivation areas, and smart irrigation for wet rice and long-term crop cultivation; transforming agricultural farming models towards low emissions; Improve feed rations in livestock farming.
Reuse crop residue and treat livestock waste as organic fertilizer and create biogas; Apply composting and chemical fertilizer reduction methods; Replace urea with low emission fertilizers.
Apply advanced measures in agricultural production to reduce methane emissions from rice cultivation and animal husbandry. Reduce post-harvest food loss and associated emissions through improved agricultural logistics and sustainable cold chain development.
- Forestry and land use sector
Protect existing natural forest areas in mountainous and coastal areas to strictly control forest conversion, deforestation and forest degradation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plant new protective forests and special-use forests with native tree species to increase carbon absorption. Improve the quality and carbon reserves of poor natural forests through additional planting and enrichment of forests to increase carbon absorption.
Improve productivity and quality of planted forests to increase carbon absorption and reduce emissions through applying technical advances, converting short-term planted forests to long-term planted forests; Reduce exploitation of wood from planted forests for wood chip production.
Sustainable forest management and forest certification to reduce emissions from controlling deforestation and forest degradation, forest fires and biomass burning; Increase greenhouse gas absorption through increasing forest quality, preserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services. Develop and replicate agro-forestry models through additional planting of forestry and timber trees to increase carbon absorption and prevent land degradation, with priority given to sloping land areas.
- Waste sector
Implement management measures to minimize waste generation from production to consumption, expand the responsibility of manufacturers; Increase reuse and recycling of waste.
Develop models for integrated solid waste management. Apply advanced measures in solid waste treatment including: landfilling with gas collection (LFG), semi-aerobic landfilling; produce compost from organic waste; burning solid waste to generate electricity; Production of fuel pellets from solid waste.
Apply advanced measures in waste and wastewater treatment to reduce methane emissions.
- Field of industrial processes and industrial product use
Improving, developing and applying technology in the production of construction materials; Developing and using energy-saving construction materials and green materials in the housing and commercial sectors. Replace coal with natural gas in tile production; Use alternative materials in glass production. Implement alternative solutions for blast furnace slag grinding, fly ash grinding, Puzzolana grinding and limestone grinding, reducing the clinker ratio in cement production.
Applying high temperature decomposition technology and new technologies to reduce N2O emissions in the chemical field. Apply carbon capture technology in the fields of cement production, chemicals - fertilizer and steelmaking. Applying molten oxide electrolysis technology in the steelmaking field; Use hydrogen to replace coke in "green" steelmaking from 2035.
Complete the system of regulations and standards on green buildings and green urban areas, ensuring that by 2050, regulations and standards on green buildings and green urban areas are compulsorily applied to all construction projects.
Gradually reduce the use of Hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbon (HCFC) and Hydro-fluoro-carbon (HFC) refrigerants in the cold chain, refrigeration system and building air conditioning; improve cooling efficiency, reduce cooling needs and refrigerant consumption through passive cooling and building design solutions; Promote the recovery, reuse, destruction, and recycling of refrigerants and move toward using refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP).
3. Improve institutions, promote potential and resources to effectively respond to climate change
a) Build and perfect institutions and policies
- Develop and improve mechanisms, policies, laws on climate change, national standards and regulations in accordance with the goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050. Review and correct Change and supplement specialized laws, strategies, planning, and development plans for the period 2021 - 2030 in accordance with the Strategic goals of adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Orientation to limit industries that use a lot of energy while creating low GDP value, not oriented to export products that consume a lot of energy; Encourage high-tech, low-energy industries; Limit timber exploitation and export.
- Develop a plan to implement the Glasgow Declaration on forests and land use, and a roadmap for converting vehicles to clean energy; Plan to implement the Global Joint Declaration on transitioning coal to clean energy; Complete policies and national marine spatial planning to serve offshore wind power development.
- Complete regulations, processes, and technical instructions on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, inventorying greenhouse gases, and the system of "measuring, reporting, and appraising" activities to reduce acute greenhouse gas emissions, sectoral and grassroots levels. Institutionalize the low-carbon development model and circular economy; Effectively apply carbon pricing tools, including carbon taxes, greenhouse gas emission quota trading floors and carbon credits, connecting with regional and world markets.
- Develop and improve inter-regional and inter-sectoral coordination mechanisms in responding to climate change; mechanism for implementing responsibilities in responding to climate change for state agencies, socio-political organizations, and businesses. Complete regulations on management of climate change adaptation activities; Establish and operate a system for monitoring and evaluating climate change adaptation activities at national, sectoral and provincial levels for climate change adaptation activities. Promote the development of the climate risk insurance market. Develop criteria for assessing climate risks; Identify projects and tasks to adapt to climate change; Evaluate the effectiveness of climate change adaptation activities. Integrate climate change adaptation and greenhouse gas emission reduction into urban development planning to reduce energy and resource needs and increase cities' ability to adapt to climate change.
- Develop and promulgate policies to encourage investment in reducing emissions in various fields; trade and development policies that promote sustainable development; produce and consume goods sustainably and without deforestation and forest degradation; sustainable agriculture, promoting food security and avoiding harm to the environment.
b) Communicate, raise awareness and attract community participation
- Diversify information methods, exploit the advantages of digital technology, improve communication quality on mass media to provide complete, accurate and timely forecast information, hydrometeorology, forecasting, and natural disaster warnings for government agencies at all levels, organizations, and households.
- Develop and implement a national communication program, organize training classes for authorities at all levels, social organizations and communities to raise awareness, disseminate and update knowledge and information about natural disasters. ears, adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions towards net zero emissions, information on future technologies and related skills; guide, disseminate knowledge, and train skills on natural disaster prevention and control, especially response skills when there are serious and complicated natural disaster situations.
- Preserve and promote traditional culture and local knowledge, especially focusing on the role of artisans in responding to climate change; Propagating and replicating activities and models of applying environmentally friendly technology, renewable technology, using clean energy, adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, community model community adaptation to climate change, community model to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
- Add, improve and update knowledge about climate change adaptation, natural disaster risk reduction and greenhouse gas emission reduction into the general education program; promoting climate-friendly lifestyles, contributing to forming a civilized lifestyle and protecting the earth's climate system.
- Communicate, raise awareness and attract community participation, in sustainable forest and forestry development, mangrove ecosystem restoration, community-based and nature-based livelihood models and models to adapt to climate change while enhancing greenhouse gas absorption and preserving biodiversity. Disseminate information, encourage carbon labeling, and use products and services that use clean energy, low carbon emissions, and are environmentally friendly instead of products and services that use fossil energy; Label products that do not use substances that have the potential to cause global warming.
c) Human resource development
- Develop and implement training, retraining, and retraining programs on climate change adaptation, natural disaster risk reduction, and use of renewable energy and new energy; Education and training program integrating content to respond to climate change at all levels.
- Strengthen the capacity of businesses to access and participate in implementing programs and projects according to mechanisms for exchanging and offsetting carbon credits and developing carbon markets.
- Research, survey, compile data, and periodically forecast the demand and ability to supply human resources to respond to climate change; disseminate and provide information on the job market related to climate change.
- Develop a team of high-quality experts on greenhouse gas inventory, appraisal of greenhouse gas emission reduction, carbon market development, ozone layer protection, climate change adaptation and response, management requirements and in accordance with the roadmap, domestic regulations and international treaties on climate change to which Vietnam is a member.
d) Developing science and technology
- Review and improve mechanisms and policies related to promoting technology transfer and innovation to respond to climate change; Assess technology needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; Build a portfolio of clean, low-carbon technologies in manufacturing industries to promote application, technology transfer and investment mobilization.
- Organize scientific research, application and technology transfer to serve ministries, branches and localities in implementing tasks and solutions to respond to climate change to achieve the goal of achieving net emissions of "zero" 0" by 2050. Research and develop source technology in response to climate change; Propose policies to remove barriers for businesses to invest in research to respond to climate change; promote research and development at enterprises and national corporations on low-emission development; Form large corporations with strong capacity in scientific research and mastery of source technology.
- Strengthen scientific research, development and technology transfer, with priority given to focusing on high technology, new and modern technology in converting energy production towards clean, economical and efficient use of energy; Using new fuels and materials with low emissions and climate friendliness; waste treatment; carbon capture and burial; effective management and exploitation of resources; development and application of renewable energy, new energy, energy storage; acquire, apply and develop nuclear reactor technology; develop plant and animal varieties that adapt to climate change.
- Effectively apply cloud computing technologies, big data, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, blockchain... in building and implementing solutions to respond to climate change; in estimating and forecasting the impacts of climate change on natural and social systems to contribute to converting challenges into development opportunities and supporting ministries, branches, localities, organizations and individuals. Improve capacity to respond to climate change.
- Research, develop, supplement and update standards and technical regulations on planning and design of green works and infrastructure, taking into account the impact of climate change in the long term; standards and technical regulations related to new and renewable energy sources.
- Integrate research into technology application solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change suitable to Vietnamese conditions in national science and technology tasks as required by the industry, field and locality. Prioritize research and implementation of solutions to adapt to climate change with co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic development.
d) Mobilize financial resources to respond to climate change
- Review, amend and supplement mechanisms and policies to create favorable conditions to attract investment capital flows to respond to climate change, and encourage the participation of businesses and people in carrying out activities. Adaptation to climate change, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, building low-emission communities, management and rational use of resources and environmental protection associated with sustainable livelihood development.
- Develop state budget allocation processes and public investment planning, state budget plans and estimates to ensure effective allocation and use of climate change response activities; Prioritize allocating investment resources from the state budget or using support sources, grant aid, and preferential loans to implement climate change adaptation works and projects with co-benefits with socio-economic development and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
- Develop and apply investment incentive policies, mechanisms and economic tools to unlock social resources and effectively mobilize financial resources of the business sector to respond to climate change. Queen; Identify programs and projects that bring high economic efficiency and contribute to achieving the goal of responding to climate change for businesses to implement through forms of cooperation between the state and businesses, and between governments, domestic and foreign investors, giving priority to projects that apply technology and solutions to convert use of fossil energy to renewable energy and improve energy efficiency.
- Review, amend and supplement mechanisms and policies to remove procedural obstacles, attract investment capital flows and green finance flows of financial institutions and international credit organizations enter Vietnam; Attract international corporations and multinational corporations to Vietnam to cooperate in implementing projects, especially projects to transform production and energy consumption.
- Develop regulations and instructions for monitoring financial sources and supporting climate change response in accordance with Vietnamese law and requirements of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. , Paris Agreement and international financial mechanisms to respond to climate change in which Vietnam participates.
e) Promote international cooperation in responding to climate change
- Promote climate diplomacy activities, actively and proactively participate in regional and global cooperation mechanisms to respond to climate change, especially climate finance mechanisms; improve the effectiveness of bilateral and multilateral foreign affairs, including strengthening cooperation on climate change response at global, regional and sub-regional mechanisms; Connect with governments, organizations, financial institutions, localities, foreign businesses, and international campaigns to exchange information, share experiences, knowledge, management skills and maximize mobilization Support from development partners, foreign organizations and individuals to respond to climate change, low-emission and sustainable development on the basis of equality, cooperation and mutual benefit.
- Fulfill obligations in international treaties to which Vietnam is a member; Actively participate, make substantive contributions, proactively propose new ideas and initiatives at regional and international mechanisms of which Vietnam is a member; Participate in the process of initiating and promoting new cooperation mechanisms. Negotiate to build partnerships and cooperation mechanisms to attract resources and international support for Vietnam to implement international commitments on responding to climate change.
- Promote international cooperation in research, development and application of potential greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies such as carbon capture and storage, green hydrogen energy development, energy batteries, and energy nuclear and other potential new energy sources; implementing solutions to adapt to climate change and rising sea levels; Forecast, warn and have appropriate response solutions to the transboundary impacts of climate change response activities around the world. Periodically update and implement Nationally Determined Contributions, National Climate Change Adaptation Plan, and national reports on climate change.
V. IMPLEMENTATION ORGANIZATION
1. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
- Chair and coordinate with ministries, ministerial-level agencies, Government agencies and People's Committees of provinces and centrally-run cities to organize the implementation of the Strategy nationwide; Periodically review 5-year and 10-year periods and propose to the Prime Minister to decide to adjust the Strategy to suit the actual situation.
- Preside and coordinate with ministries, branches and localities to identify key programs, projects, and key tasks to implement international commitments on climate change and the goal of achieving net emissions equal to “0” for each specific stage, submitted to the Prime Minister for consideration and decision. Guidance on mainstreaming and integrating climate change response content into development strategies and planning.
- Preside over guiding, inspecting, supervising, evaluating and reporting to the Prime Minister on the implementation of the Strategy on an annual, 5-year, and 10-year basis and summarizing the implementation of the Strategy.
2. Ministry of Planning and Investment
- Chair and coordinate with ministries, branches and localities to review and update national strategies and plans for the 10-year period and 5-year socio-economic development plans to ensure synchronization and suitability, compatible with the stated objectives.
- Take charge of reviewing, amending and supplementing investment mechanisms and policies; regulations on management and use of official development assistance capital and concessional loans from foreign donors to remove procedural obstacles and create favorable conditions for bringing development investment capital flows, Green finance from financial institutions and international credit organizations into Vietnam.
- Preside and coordinate with relevant ministries and branches to balance and allocate investment capital to develop central budget sources for activities to respond to climate change; Mobilize and coordinate domestic and foreign funding sources to implement the Strategy.
3. Ministry of Finance
- Preside and coordinate with relevant ministries, branches and agencies to review, adjust and submit to competent authorities for approval policies on finance, investment, and support to create favorable conditions for implementation of the Strategy.
- Based on legal regulations, balance and arrange state budget and regular expenditures to implement the Strategy.
4. Ministries: Industry and Trade, Transport, Agriculture and Rural Development, Construction
- Review, amend and supplement specialized laws, strategies, planning and sectoral plans in accordance with the goals of adapting to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; Develop and implement a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors according to the roadmap to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.
- Strengthen capacity to implement the Paris Agreement and Vietnam's declarations and commitments at COP26. Complete regulations, processes, and technical instructions on greenhouse gas inventory, system of "measurement, reporting, appraisal" of greenhouse gas emission mitigation activities at industry and grassroots levels.
- Organize the implementation of field-level greenhouse gas inventories and develop reports to serve the national greenhouse gas inventory according to the provisions of law.
- Develop national standards and regulations on emission reduction and greenhouse gas inventory; standards and technical regulations related to fields consistent with the goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050.
5. Ministries, ministerial-level agencies, and agencies under the Government
- Organize the development and promulgation of action plans to respond to climate change every 10 years according to management fields; Integrate goals, tasks and solutions into strategies, planning and development plans for industries and fields within the scope of management in accordance with the practical situation.
- Organize, deploy, monitor and evaluate the results of implementing the tasks set out in the Strategy according to authority, ensuring unity and synchronization; Prioritize budget allocation for Strategy implementation activities.
- Proactively develop and implement communication activities, awareness raising, education and training on responding to climate change according to assigned functions and tasks.
6. People's Committees of provinces and centrally run cities
- Organize the development and promulgation of action plans to respond to climate change every 10 years at the provincial level; Integrate goals, tasks and solutions into the content of provincial planning and socio-economic development plans in accordance with the local practical situation.
- Promote the potential and advantages of each locality to implement tasks and solutions to adapt to climate change, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and participate in programs and projects under the exchange mechanism. , offset carbon credits.
- Organize assessments of impacts, vulnerabilities, risks, losses and damages due to climate change; Strengthen inspection and supervision of greenhouse gas emission mitigation activities of greenhouse gas emission establishments located in the area.
- Organize, deploy, monitor and evaluate the results of implementing the tasks set out in the Strategy according to authority; Prioritize budget allocation for Strategy implementation activities.
- Develop and implement communication activities, raise awareness, train, improve quality and restructure the team of officials, civil servants and public employees working to respond to climate change.
7. Research institutes and universities, based on their assigned tasks and solutions, develop and propose to ministries, branches and localities and carry out research, application and teaching contents within the industry, The field of activity contributes to promoting adaptation to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
8. The Vietnam Fatherland Front, socio-political organizations, socio-professional organizations, and the business community proactively participate in activities to respond to climate change according to their functions and tasks; Actively coordinate with ministries, branches and localities to implement, monitor and evaluate the Strategy implementation process.
9. Encourage the participation of relevant parties, including the business community, social organizations, non-governmental organizations, domestic and international organizations in coordinating with ministries, branches, locally and proactively implement and propose initiatives to promote adaptation to climate change, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and participate in the process of monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Strategy.
VI. IMPLEMENTATION RESOURCES
Capital sources to implement the Strategy include capital from the state budget, capital from organizations and individuals, international sponsorship and other legally mobilized capital sources according to the provisions of law.
- For capital from the state budget, comply with current state decentralization. Ministries, branches and localities, based on the goals and tasks stated in the Strategy, develop investment projects or budget estimates for specific tasks and implement them according to current regulations.
- Promote the mobilization of financial resources from domestic and foreign organizations, individuals, and businesses to participate in implementing the Strategy in accordance with the law; Integrate tasks assigned to ministries, branches and localities in other relevant national target programs.

Source: Vitic/ thuvienphapluat.vn
 

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