AsemconnectVietnam - Forestry research in order to contribute to forest development orientation, effective implementation of forestry development strategy and overall plan on Vietnam agricultural research to 2020; serve requirements of agriculture and rural industrialization and modernization in Vietnam by 2020.
FORESTRY RESEARCH STRATEGY OF VIETNAM TO 2020
I. Current status of Vietnam forestry research
In the past, forestry science research contribute more effectively to development of the forestry sector in particular, the development of agriculture and rural development in general. Applied research and technology transfer, including import technology are enhanced, contributing to shorten research time and efficient serve to production. Some works are applied in manufacturing increase from 27% in the period of 1976-1990 to 41% in 1991-1995, 53% in the 1996-2000 period and 56% in the 2001-2004 period. Number of units involving in research increase, research investment improved, investment level increase, more divesified capital resource; outside the state budget for scientific research, international cooperation projects: The forest protection and development projects funded by foreign, PAM programs and a number of national programs also contribute significantly to forest science research, such as: 327, 661... In some key areas such as breeding, research achievements of Vietnam has achieved the level of countries in the region and a number of advanced countries. Research results have been widely applied in practical production. Many national varieties and advanced techniques varieties for eucalyptus, acacia, casuarina have high yield and resistance has been recognized. Breeding technology has become quite common to create a batch of seedlings of uniform quality. The achievements on a number of specific areas: Classification of forest land, to evaluate the potential and suitability of the land for a number of major forest species, classification of land, dividing the site.
- Classification of forest vegetation in Vietnam, determine the main characteristics of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, limestone forest, mangrove forest.
- Assessment of biodiversity of forest ecosystems of Vietnam; endemic, rare and endangered species; propose conservation methods and conservation of genetic resources.
- Develop scientific and technological basis for the sustainable management of natural forests. - Identification of forest plant species on bare soil; improved varieties, breeding, forest-planted intensive technical of high capacity (acacia, eucalyptus).
- Propose planted timber processing technology (drying, split mode, artificial, chopped fibers, etc.) preservation of some forest products.
- Identify the basic properties of wood as a basis for using wood and split the group.
- Forest products market forecast and propose some arguments to build forestry policy playing as motive force to develop the sector.
- Issued hundreds of state standards and industry standards, processes, and technical rules.
2. Regarding shortcomings and existing:
One of the major shortcomings in scientific research in forestry is the number of research results putting into production still limited and study did not meet timely the requirements of production. The main reason is defined as:
- Development information and prediction are weak and lack of a strategy for scientific and technological research for the industry, identifying trends, research objectives and choose of priority topics do not precise and effective research is not high, not tie to production and marketing practices. There are many gaps in the research such as: basic research to create new technical and technological solutions; forest and land resources management research; study of organizations and management of forestry; forest products market; valuation of forests and environmental services of forests; research related to climate change: impacts and adaptation measures, research of applying foreign advance technical and technology...
- Research organization not reasonable. In the course of setting up research plans do not pay attention to the object of forest tree with a long production cycle, research topic is often interrupted, divided. Without the involvement of the users of research results in the process of determining the content, implementation and evaluation of research results. - Lack of motivation for the study and application of technological advances in production. The current policy is not really to encourage and promote scientific research, especially the remuneration policy, use of scientific researchers do not have attract good staff for forestry research, limiting the dynamic, creative and autonomy.
- Lack, weak and incomplete researchers, especially researchers forces in localities and facilities; not yet formed group of scientists in each field of expertise with different levels and less inheritance; moving on to market mechanism and forestry turning to social forestry, staff are not equipped with knowledge and appropriate approach so be less sensitive and low efficiency research.
- Collaboration between scientists, research institutions, between research with universal and manufacturing, training has not been closed. Without close collaboration between science and technology program with program of socio-economic development and program of industry development. Economic efficiency of research and technology transfer have not been given due attention.
- Research conditions are both missing and outdated. Laboratory equipment did not meet the requirements; forest research, experiments do not have appropriate management regulations. Funding for research is very low and far from the requirements.
II. Organize to research forestry
1. System of research institutions:
System of forestry research organizations have formed fairly uniform, including forest science institute of Vietnam is a major research organization, the leading forest research. ed a number of independent forestry scientific research institutions under forestry science and technology association of Vietnam and Vietnam forestry university. Many related agencies and organizations in forestry sector also participates in forestry research. However, research potential, especially in the national parks and forest establishment in general has not been promoted, some areas pay little attention to invest in research, forestry production and business establishments in general do not have adequate investment for forestry research ..
- Forest science institute of Vietnam is a research agency under the ministry of agriculture forestry and rural development, was established in 1961 and reorganized in 1988. Before to 1988, on basis of spliting from former institute of forest science to independent scientific science forestry research institutions including: institution of forestry, forest industry institution, institution of economics under forest ministry of forestry ( forestry general). Functions and duties of forest science institute now includes: scientific and technical research on silviculture, forest industry and forest economy for management and production of the sector; construction and implementation of program of socio-economic and scientific and technical of the sector; construction management regulations and procedures, rules, norms and standards of forestry economic and technique; training of postgraduate staff in field of forestry and forest products processing, improving training, capacity for scientific and technical staff and implementing international cooperation, advisory services of technical sciences. Forest science institute of Vietnam has science council, function rooms, study rooms, specialized research centers, technology transfer centers and regional centers with multidisciplinary scientific staff system, laboratories, workshops and experimental research forest of over 10,000 hectares. In recent years, advantages of scientific research forest of forest science institute of Vietnam is still mainly problems of basic and applied research on forestry. Forest industry issues and economic management of forestry sector has not been much interested.
- The organizations of scientific research under forest university: center for the ecological environment ..., pulpwood tree research center (now institute of pulpwood trees of Vietnam paper corporation ), the center, the institute of forestry science and technology association is the organization of scientific research in the other areas of forestry , especially in the field of ecological environment, the management, forest economics .. The organizations have attracted a lot of scientific and technical staff working in forestry agencies or retired units in forestry research quite effective.
- Joining forestry science research including units operating in different areas in the forestry sector, such as: institute of forest inventory and plan, three technical centers to protect forests (under forest department). (forest zone 1 in Quang Ninh, zone 2 in Thanh Hoa and Ho Chi Minh city in zone 3), secondary schools and forestry technical workers school, national parks and natural protection areas of natural in central and local levels. Business establishments in other sectors, such as forestry departments of Thai Nguyen university of agriculture and forestry, university of agriculture and forestry, university of agriculture and forestry in Ho Chi Minh City, Tay Nguyen university and some other schools such as the university of agriculture, Hanoi university of pharmacy, Hanoi national university, research institutes such as the institute of ecology and biological resources, institute of vegetable research, institute of soil chemistry, institute of policy and strategy for agriculture and rural development... also participating in the research topic and directly serve programs of national forestry such as programs 327, 661 ...
- Units under production and trading sectors such as: forest seed company, Vietnam forestry corporation .. also carried out research on various areas, especially in the areas like: breeding, breeding, build nurseries, seed and research plants providing material of paper.
- Join forestry scientific research including facilities in the local: experimental agricultural forest, center for science and technology of agriculture and forestry, agricultural and forestry extension center , experimental forest ... have function and tasks related to scientific research, application of technology, technology transfer or universal ... Many international organizations interest in forestry research and support, in cooperation with local partners to perform many forestry research programs, for example: FAO, CIFOR APAFRI in, ACIAR, CSIRO, DANIDA , JICA, SIDA, SAREC, UNDP, IUCN, TBI, GTZ ...
2. Research resources:
- Human resources: In recent years, training of teaching and studying staffs at home and abroad was strengthened and a team of young master and doctors in research institutions, universities increased significantly. However, the leading staffs in many areas of forest research (example: clinical studies), is still missing or not assert itself. Research capacity of young staff is not uniform and not many good researchers.
- Research equipment generally outdated comparing to many countries in the region and or compared to the agricultural sector in the country. Forests do not have key national laboratories or large and focus investment.
3. Research management mechanism:
- Management mechanism of science and technology have had a lot of changes, especially after the Law on Science and Technology released; identifying research plan has been move from forming task to choose and play public bidding, creating healthy competition and equality between the components involved in research and contribute to improving the efficiency of research.Strategy of development of science and technology to 2020, and Decree 115/2005/ND-CP of the Government mentioned and regulated autonomy, self-responsibility of public science and technology institutions.
- Regarding implementation of research programs and projects: Before 1980, projects are incorporated into programs of the sector; since 1981, programs of targeted technical progress are built in two levels: State and sector. In addition to State and sector level key programs and independent project and regularly research tasks. Lack of long-term research program in accordance with characteristics of forestry sector is perennial tree causing difficult for annual research plan.
- Management of research more and more clearly assigned between the Ministry of Science and Technology and other specialized ministries as well as the hierarchy between the tasks of the State, sector and local level. - Research financial management mechanism in slow innovation, not encourage scientific and technological activities and attract talent; characteristics as evident in forestry research, because this is an area with many specific difficulties in area, long time and a big risk.
- Mechanism of test, evaluation and acceptance ... much improved but still heavy on procedures and forms. - Lack of management mechanism of research results to ensure that research results are used effectively, lack of coordination with network extension to put research results into production. Lack of information management systems to serve different audiences such as managers, policy makers, research institutions, training and production facilities.
III. Objectives, content of strategy of forestry research to 2020
- The overall objective Forestry research in order to contribute to forest development orientation, effective implementation of forestry development strategy and overall plan on Vietnam agricultural research to 2020; serve requirements of agriculture and rural industrialization and modernization in Vietnam by 2020.
- Specific objectives
+ Development orientations of sector: Provide science-based development orientation towards socialization of forestry industry and promote the supply of goods and environmental services of forests.
+ Target of forest production and conservation of biodiversity:
Improving the efficiency of research, linking scientific research to practical of production, raising the proportion of the contribution of science to the development of the sector reaching the following criteria: Improve productivity of natural forests to 1.5 times for group of plants of economic value; Production plantation development with a number of key species with high and sustainable yield (1.5 - 2 times); Protecting and promoting the values of protection of forests, especially forest of watershed and coastal protection. Conservation, development and sustainable use of biological diversity, genetic resources of forests, including non-timber forest products; Improve technology to ensure low mining impact for natural forests, develop small and medium-scale wood processing technology, diversify use of materials.
+ Strengthening research capacity: Strengthening research capacity and improve research organizational systems, combining research with training, human resource development, expanding international cooperation in order to raise the forest science and technology level reaching range of countries in the region. The specific objectives to be achieved are: Organize appropriate , effective research system; establish a close relationship between research and training - compulsory. Research staff are trained enough capacity to meet the practical requirements and international integration, having leading research staff capable and legacy. Infrastructure and modern research facilities to be strengthened in accordance with the level of the region. Develop information technology systems, data base strong enough for research and the application of research results into forestry production practice.
2. Research priorities:
Base on the Vietnam forestry development strategy to 2020 and science and technology development strategy to 2020 has been approved, the research priorities sorted by the field and divided into 3 priority levels: high priority, medium priority and low priority. Research priorities are arranged in six areas:
1) Planning, monitoring and evaluation of forest and forest resources;
2) forestry policies and institutions;
3) Sustainable forest management;
4) Environment and forest biodiversity;
5) Forestry and silvicultural (natural forests, planted forests, non-timber forest products);
6) forest industry, storage and processing of forest products. Planning, monitoring and evaluation of forest and forest resources, including:
+ Forest and forest land use planning in the macro and micro level.
+ Research and application of advanced scientific and technological solutions in the investigation and monitoring of forest resources.
+ Develop management records system, the system of indicators of assessment and monitoring of forest resources. Forest policies and institutions, including: + Forecast of forestry development in each period (demand, market, power supply)
+ Summarize practical, evaluate implementation of policies and programs, major projects, propose solutions, new policies on forestry, such as: socialization forestry sector policy, land and forests; policies on forest benefit sharing mechanisms, policies of investment , credit and environmental services, role of forests in poverty alleviation and contribution of the sector in the national economy ...
+ The State management system agreements on forestry, forest management system and organization of forestry production, system of indicators of economic and technical forestry sector ...
+ Forestry development in market mechanism. Sustainable forest management, including:
+ The form of management and development of forests.
+ The methods exploit and use the sustainable forests, including natural forests and plantations. + Develop national standards for sustainable forest management.
Forest environment and biodiversity, including:
+ Forest with environmental protection, climate change and disaster prevention. Protection capacity of all kinds of forests.
+ Calculate value of forest on environment and landscapes.
+ Biodiversity of natural forests and improve forest biological diversity.
+ Conservation and use of genetic resources of species rare native plants and animal.
+ Development research of urban forestry. Foresters and silviculture, including:
+ Natural forest: characteristics of main natural forest ecosystems in Vietnam; system of silviculture techniques to improve the quality of degraded natural forests under intensive cultivation; techniques to harvest sustainably natural forest and natural forest recovery after exploitation.
+ Plantation: scientific basis of defining a number of key economic species for the ecoregion; improving varieties of major crops (yield, quality and tolerance); intensive production plantation (small wood and big wood); basis of scientific and technical system built protection forests; technical solutions for plantation forest and restoration and regeneration for a number of particular ecosystems (mangroves salty forest, dry dipterocarp forest); management solutions, forest pest control, forest fire.
+ Non-timber forest products: assessment of non-timber forest products resource (NTFPs); mining and sustainable development of NTFP in households and farm scale; planting, processing and preservation of economic valuable forest species and development potential. Forest industry, storage and processing of forest products, including:
+ Build a database of characteristics of Vietnamese timber and NTFPs.
+ Assess development potential of sources of timber material and NTFPs. Diversification of use of material resource. + Technology for exploiting low impact forestry products of natural forests; application of advanced technologies in the forest exploitation.
+ Technology of preservation and preservation medicine of forest products safe to the environment.
+ Technology for processing small and medium-scale forest products.
+ Build system of standard for wood and wood products. In period of 2015 - 2020, give high priority to topics: building up a system of indicators for assessment and monitoring of forest resources; forest land allocation policy, co-management of forests and forest environmental services, benefit policy, development of social forestry, forest valuation, building national standards for sustainable forest management, to evaluate the environmental values of forests and landscapes, disaster management and risk environment; improved varieties; intensive to provide small timber plantations and natural forest regeneration and plantation forests to provide timber; assessments of forest products market , storage technology research, development, processing small and medium-scale forest products ...
3. Strengthening the research capacity
- Sort research organizational systems
+ Main objective of research organization system arrangement is to further improve efficiency of research, limiting overlap in research. Key issue of interest is: Specify the functions and duties of each research organization, gradually shaping the "spearhead" of research organizations of forestry research system. Attract all human resources in the system in forestry research through collaboration in research, organized research and training information.. Sort systems research organizations in the country and in each research institutions to suit the new situation, tasks.
+ Coordination relationship of research organizations: Agricultural research systems (including forestry) are now organized in three levels: national, regional and provincial levels. Tend to arrange system of agricultural research institutions will be reduced central research institutions, extension agencies, regional and provincial research. At the central level, forest science institute of Vietnam is a leading research institute of forestry. Institute establish a system of thematic research centers, regional centers, forming a unified system of research of the Institute. In the future, gradually improve the independence and autonomy of the research center in order to meet better meet actual requirements of development of the sector. Encourage the development and operation of other forest science research institutions beside forest science institute of Vietnam, especially the non-state research institutions. At localities and grassroots level, encouraging researches summerized from practice to encourage all economic sectors to participate in forestry research; may form research centers in areas where demand urgent and qualified resources. Bringing forestry science research tasks as their regular duties for the organization of system of national parks, nature conservation, forestry companies, universities, colleges, professional school. Enhance collaboration between research institutions through research information systems, join research program, research projects requiring on a large scale or multi-disciplinary, multi-sector ...
+ With the formation of various research organizations, step by step more clearly defined functions and responsibilities of each organization for appropriate research and establish the relationship of research organizational systems. Forest Science Institute of Vietnam prioritize and towards proactive, innovative, long-term and more fundamental, strategic significance research. Institute / center of area mainly focus on specific issues, the immediate and associated research issues in the development strategy of the region. Universities, in addition to the tasks involving in research for production, towards research of nature basic, contribute to improving quality of teaching and finishing syllabus.
+ Step by step complete organizational structure in same research institutes / centers to suit specific forestry research. Development research center on each sector, thematic research, regional centers, technology transfer centers. Can form flexible research organizations in a period such as thematic team and multi-disciplinary ...
+ Focus on building partnerships in research, establish close relationships between research institutes and universities, regional institutions and develop partnerships with other organizations within and outside the industry, non-governmental organizations.
+ Converting strongly management system of finance and plan of research organizations to meet new requirements of self-funding organization of science and technology and scientific enterprises. Research organizations must be directed to multi-sector, competitiveness, participating in project bidding, domestic and international projects, having reputation to joint ventures in research and technology transfer.
- Development of human resources Training human resources for forestry research in the following basic directions:
+ Training comprehensive, in-depth and comprehensive: intensive training priorities in the central research agency, comprehensive training priorities for local researchers.
+ Training sync and harmony between staff research having degree such as a Master's, PhD to the practicing engineer, technician.
+ Focus on proper training of female human resources in research.
+ Training of human resources for the institute, research institutions must pay special attention to improving the quality of training in the universities, especially the university of forestry, agriculture and forestry.
+ Strengthening infrastructure and research equipment. Strengthening infrastructure and research equipment, pay special attention to the field of experiments, laboratory forest, nurseries systems, collection garden, nurseries, local research facilities, in the regional center, regional hospital. Position research field, especially for natural forests, must be sustained. Research, propose mechanisms of management and use of forest scientific research in scientific research institutions and scientific research forest in production facilities or other career. Strengthening research equipment in the direction of accessing to modern and advanced research methods, including:
+ Priority modern equipment for research institutions at the central level.
+ For devices in accordance with the normal research and professional layout research field in localities and basis. + Modern research equipment associating with the training of professionals, skilled technicians.
- Development of information systems, research database in the following basic directions:
+ Invest in building the necessary information systems such as libraries, internet, LAN, web pages to form a network of information systems can be upgrated fro outside and within research institutions.
+ Build a forest database, especially in the research and development of long-term study site for long-term studies, interdisciplinary. To regulate specific information, database needs to be upgrated in forestry research information system after acceptance of each subject invested by the State budget.
4. Improving the efficiency of research
- Develop strategic implementation plan
Construction plans must be directed to solve immediate pressing issues, and to focus on problem of long-term basic research and forecasting new problems in the future. Building long-term and medium-term plans, welcome requirements of production, to ensure consistency and legacy. Forestry research not only address technical issues but also social problems, sync resolve from the beginning (planting) to the last stage (consumption), strategic plan should indicate importance of research networks and research cooperation between units in each agency, between domestic and foreign research institutions.
- Application of modern technology to research Application of appropriate, technology, modern techniques to the implementation of topic in order to increase efficiency, quality and reliability of the results of scientific research such as biotechnology in breeding, hybrid breeding, breeding, genetic diversity assessment for genetic conservation and biodiversity (gene technical, isoenzyme, directives molecules), plant protection (biological products), using the same radioisotopes in environmental research, new technology in preservation and processing of forest products ... Early access to modern technology in the evaluation of forest resources, forest fire control.
- Access to research information Increase access to domestic and international information sources. The research data and documents of researchers or research institutions are managed and create opportunities to share for people which may use when needed. The source of information is always added, stored and transferred. The researchers can full access and upgrate the latest information through master the skills of using the means of modern information technology. Access to local knowledge from local people in the areas related to forestry and forest management. - Expansion of international cooperation Seeing the development of international relations is an important task in order to create favorable opportunity to implement objectives. To develop international cooperation in following these directions: + Identify countries, international organizations and their strengths to build long-term cooperation, mutual benefit on the basis of common interests. Can be divided into groups such as: Countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Countries with advanced forestry scientific: Australia, Sweden, Denmark, France, New Zealand, U.S., Canada, Germany ... International organizations and donor partners: FAO, UNDP, IUFRO, APAFRI, CIFOR, IDRC, ACIAR, Tropenbos, FORD Fund, JICA, INBAR, IPGRI, GTZ ...
+ Promote bilateral and multilateral research, especially research in the field of genetic improvement, breeding and processing of forest products, forest environment and biodiversity.
+ Promote training through international cooperation. Encourage the development and take part in international cooperation projects, it is the opportunity to access new information, research methods and modern technology, experience, additional funding.
- Promote technology transfer Research topics must have clear, convincing outputs and results (laboratory model of plantations, new varieties, new technologies, new machinery, etc.). Some of results of such research is necessary to transform into process or technical guidelines for chance to transfer. Techniques, new results have been deployed from early experiment to area of larger trials. Topic of positive research results, deployment needs to be priority in allocating research plans, especially in practical application in production. Strengthening forestry promotion staffs so they are just as the propagation and promotion of the technology to the buyer just transferer, through training and guidance courses. Promote link between researchers, growers, extension staff and other processing facilities so that research have specific targets and more practical, to meet the requirements of the product and the production. Special note to the forest, materials planting company, farms because this is where to quickly apply promising results. Research links with education and training institutions to add new results in teaching curriculum, higher education in universities and vocational training in order to add new knowledge to students, trainees. Linkages were developed through cooperative research and teaching subjects. Technology transfer is an urgent task of the organization, the research institutions in the future.
- Monitoring and evaluation Programs, topics, current research projects have been monitored, evaluated, accepted by managements of agencies, council of scientific of the ministry and research institutions. In assessment process taking into account adjusting objectives, content of appropriate research; assess benefits and expected outcomes of project as a basis for evaluating effectiveness of threads at the end. Focus on involvement of users of subject when evaluating results. Products of projects and results of transferring to production must pay special attention in assessment of subject.
IV. Solution to implement the strategy
1. Solutions on organizations
- Creation of forest research network in the central and in the regions to exchange information and coordinate collaborative research and propose multidisciplinary research content. Network is placed in relation to the departments of the ministry, the provincial level.
- Define clear functions, task of specific and major research of research organizations.
- Establish cooperation mechanisms through agreement, memorandum of understanding between the research and training units and development of bilateral relations in various forms.
- Define the appropriate research organization to transform into the scientific enterprise or organization of science and technology of self-funding in 2015 - 2020.
2. Solutions on human resource development
- Development of human resources
+ Build long-term plan and implementation of policy of research training, especially young staff and female staff. Training young staff through training courses (research methods, seminar, etc.), enabling young staff collaboration or participation charge of domestic and international cooperation. Promote self-training of young staff and see it as their own responsibility. Step by step layout staff regularly participate in research activities and production practices and teaching, vice versa.
+ Choose of priority areas for training of women card, especially in teaching, research such as: biotechnology, processing of forest products, policy economics and forest environment.
+ Planning and training, assignment and reasonable use of staff is an important task of the research agency and are presented in the specific plan.
+ Develop solutions to improve quality of education at the university and secondary levels.
- Develop research infrastructure: plans and measures to protect, maintain and monitor the positioning , long-term studies.
- Strengthening research equipment associated with training professionals, skilled technicians and efficient use of existing research equipment on basis of closely linking with research and cooperation program in use of the equipment. Giving priority to research topics related to the use of modern equipment in the facility which has been equipped.
- Solve well problems of funding for maintenance of equipment through assigned funding and contribution from the subject or from the sale of research products.
3. Capital solutions
- In addition to funding from the state budget, enhance mobilization of funding from manufacturers, businesses, and foreign donors to increase funding for clinical research projects.
- Upgrade scientific staff, facilities and research orientation in accordance with the market economy, through which meet the practical needs of production and attract investment, create links with production. Organized multidisciplinary, dynamic research team, deployment of effective research, to adapt to the demands of the business, the donors.
- Close links between research institutes, universities, institutes and training facility for coordinated, collaborative research.
4. Solutions on support policy
Implement well policies of the State:
- Policies to encourage scientific research, creating favorable conditions for the flagship scientists (professor, associate professor, PhD), the women scientists develop their research capacity.
- Research cost sharing and sharing of benefits deriving from research (contribution of industry and manufacturers to research...). Strict implementation of copyright and intellectual property rights in the study.
- Policies to encourage enterprises to invest in research.